Unburied Nuts from 19th July 2007: Cats over Borneo

on Wednesday, April 14, 2010

From time to time, I uncover an older post and give it another chance in the spotlight. As I am not very creative at the moment, I thought it was time to do so again. As it happens, there have been a lot of visitors sniffing around this post having Googled "cats over Borneo" or "cats and parachutes". What strange things people use Google for! Well, if you had done so, you might have ended up unearthing this fact is stranger than fiction story. Enjoy.

CATS OVER BORNEO

Cats in Cat City, Borneo (PhotoCredit: LGS)


This strange piece of public art is found in the city of Kuching which is the capital of the state of Sarawak on the vast, equatorial and forested island of Borneo. The cats' theme is actually in tribute to the city because the name Kuching actually means "cat" in the Malay language. Hence Kuching is actually "Cat City".

However, Borneo is the setting of an even more interesting and bizzare cat related story. This story is often called "Cats over Borneo". The story is set in the 1950's. Malaria, the severe and potentially fatal blood borne disease, was rampant and it was known to be spread by the Anopheles mosquito. The relatively new and young World Health Organization (WHO) was fervent in their efforts to fight malaria.

They had just added to their arsenal of weapons, a new and effective insecticide, a chemical called dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane or DDT. Today, we are aware of DDT's problems including its long half life and tendency to accumulate in fatty tissue as well as its effect on non-target species. However, at that time, the pesticide was being used worldwide, and was widely touted for its safety and its effectiveness.

Anyway, the WHO sprayed DDT liberally in the Dayak villages of the Sarawak interior. Initially, this campaign was considered a success as mosquitoes were killed and the malaria rate dropped. Then authorities were hit by two mystery complaints. The first was very bizzare. The Dayak villages consisted of longhouses which accomodate several families and which were covered by a thatch roof. The villagers complained that their roofs were collapsing exposing whole communities to the elements. Although puzzled, the authorities were forced to act quickly and sent in corrugated metal sheets to be used as roofing material.

Before, they could even take a breather, they were surprised by the outbreak of plague and reports of famine as grain stores were decimated by a large invasion of rats. The authorities urgently investigated the matter and called the Royal Air Force for help. Citizens were also asked to donate cats and to help build special cat baskets. Operation "Cat Drop" was carried out in which hundreds of cats were parachuted by the RAF onto interior villages. This reinforcement of cats eventually solved the problem.

The Day They Parachuted Cats on Borneo by Charlotte Pomerantz relates this true story in the form of a rhyme. It is also featured in an article by Gordon R. Conway in The Careless Technology: Ecology and International Development (1972) and a first-hand account of “Operation Cat-drop” is given by Tom Harrisson in the journal Animals published in 1965.

What transpired in the jungles of Borneo is a clear example and a cautionary tale that man does not know enough about the inter-connectivity of the web of life and many of our actions to address a single problem have often unexpected reprecussions. The DDT did infact kill the mosquitoes and also other insects in the jungle which were non-target species. One of which was a jungle wasp. These wasps in turn played the important role of keeping a certain caterpillar population in check by laying eggs on the caterpillar and when the larvae hatch out, the larvae feed on the caterpillar, killing it. When the DDT killed the wasp, the caterpillar population boomed and as the caterpillar fed on the roof thatching, the roofs started to collapse.

At the same time, the geckos which are a type of lizard which feed on insects were having a great time because it kept finding dead insects everywhere. However, as they ate, the DDT levels in their bodies continued to rise. The cats in the village in turn often catch and eat the geckos. Soon, all the cats died of poisoning. With the cats gone, the rats came out to play. Their population boomed, leading to the destruction of grain stores and the spread of plague. A situation that was only reversed by the airborne drop of cats over Borneo.

A strange but true tale and a warning to man to stop messing with the world's complex and balanced web of life. I did not even mention how all these imported cats caused a great upset to the indigenous squirrel population!

19 comments:

WELCOME TO MY WORLD OF POETRY: said...

Very interesting, being a lover of any wildlife and domestic pets.
I used to have a cat who wad diabetic each weekend woulld find us at our trailer on a camp site, On this camps site was many grey squirels my cat and a few of the squrriels used to sit ourside the trailer al together it was a lovely sight,

Enjoyed the read.
Take care.
Yvonne,

Joyce's Ramblings said...

Loved this post as I have a cat that is great company. I can say I don't live alone because I have this cat and she takes over her share of the house.
This post also brought up the question "What did the DDT do to me when the government sprayed the whole neighborhood once a week?" There were quite a few babies born with birth defects. This happened when I lived in the Canal Zone in the 50s.
Have a great week.

evalinn said...

Interesting! And yes, to see what people google is quite amusing, isn´t it! :-)

mago said...

It's a great story. Hopefully all learned from it.
To throw a cat from a plane is not too difficult, but making it survive is not easy ...

secret agent woman said...

Sometimes I wonder if we will ever stop to think things through first, then act.

Owen said...

This is indeed a fascinating and cautionary tale...

A sad reminder of the ravages man has and continues to perpetrate on this planet of ours.

In the meanwhile, speaking of squirrels, another has been spotted at :

http://excessivelythoughtfulchewing.blogspot.com/2010/04/good-morning-squirrel.html

So, I guess we should eat neither rats nor cats when travelling in Borneo ? And certainly not geckos or dead insects ? My goodness, is there anything left then to nibble ?

Lone Grey Squirrel said...

Yvonne,
I would have been very happy to see cat and squirrel get along so nicely. Stay well.

Joyce,
I remember seeing documentaries from the U.S. (when the world was black and white , i.e. there was no colour yet) which showed ddt fog being sprayed on children in a swimming pool with the assurance that this was good for them. How wrong they turned out to be. DDT has been linked to cancer and reproductive problems.

Lone Grey Squirrel said...

evalinn,
I got one visitor to my post a couple of weeks back that had googled "hot sweaty men"!!!!

Mago,
But cats always land on their feet or rather paws.

Lone Grey Squirrel said...

secret agent woman,
I think sometimes(actually most times) we are not as wise as we think we are smart.

Owen,
Plenty of things that can nibble at us in Borneo.

Molly said...

I have heard of many instances where un-native plants or insects were introduced to combat one problem or another and went on to cause even bigger problems! A cautionary tale. Not to mention the mental images of parachuting cats!

XUP said...

I just finished a week-long environmental course and I am scared now of all the millions of chemicals I'm exposed to every day from off-gassing, water and air pollution, food additives, my clothes, cleaning products, toiletries....they're everywhere and every day we're discovering the damage a few more of them have been doing to human health and the environment.

mago said...

Busy?

Owen said...

Just saw perhaps the finest squirrel photo I've ever seen anywhere... here...

http://arnaudphotoblog.blogspot.com/2010/04/sock-and-squirrel.html

Gledwood said...

Those bronze cats look more like pole-cats than felix domesticus!
Hey I'm thinking of getting a Porkie terrier... what do you think?

heartinsanfrancisco said...

That is indeed a most bizarre but too believable story. Thank you for rerunning it again for those of us who missed it the first time. Good stories are timeless.

squirrelmama said...

LGS, I think we need "Rodents Over Borneo" as a complementary piece of artwork. Know any local artisans?

Marja said...

Very interesting story and indeed don't mess around with nature. Unfortunately many don't understand this message yet
Hope all is well dear LGS

Jo said...

Omigosh, that is the most interesting post I have ever read!!!

When I was a little girl, my father gave me a copy of Rachel Carson's "Silent Spring" and he said, "Here, study this very carefully." We don't seem to have learned much, have we!?

SINCERITY said...

Well that post was just phenomenal! I had never heard of this story before but I greatly enjoyed learning about it! Thank you for sharing! :)

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